The Federal Council of the Advancement of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders (FCAATSI) led a campaign for the 1967 referendum based on an emotional appeal. They simplified the message to 'Vote Yes' and emphasised rights and equality for Indigenous people. The campaign received significant support from unions, churches and the Labor party The 1967 Referendum was a significant milestone in the progress towards equal rights. It holds great symbolic importance for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and much relevance for students today to assist their understanding of the complex society in which they live The 1967 referendum On 27 May 1967, Australians voted in favour of changes to the Australian Constitution to improve the services available to Indigenous Australians. The changes focused on two sections of the Constitution, which discriminated against Aborigines
. Over 90% of Australians voted 'yes' Acknowledgement of Country The 1967 Referendum was a landmark achievement for Indigenous Australians. The 1967 Referendum was a landmark achievement for Indigenous Australians. Following decades of Indigenous and non-Indigenous activism, over 90% of all Australians voted in favour of amending two sections of the Australian Constitution The 1967 referendum is about the aboriginals trying to be counted in Australias census. They are trying to change their rights and freedom. The aboriginals were treated unfairly during this time and was discriminated against 1967 referendum This referendum was the result of a decade-long campaign which strived to recognise the Aboriginal people as full Australian citizens
The 1967 referendum is a very significant key development in aboriginal and Torres Strait islander peoples struggle for rights and freedoms. On the 27th of May in the year 1967 the federal government, who at the time was Harold Holt called a federal referendum to be put in place . This video from the ABC's Behind the News explores how the 1967 referendum was part of a movement for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples' rights Source Evaluation Usefulness How does the source help a historian view the 1967 Referendum? What insight does the source give on the cause & effect of the 1967 referendum? Reliability To what degree is the source and its author a trustworthy record of events and developments during the period? How does the author's background impact their. Stolen Generation - Source Analysis. Stolen Generation Impacts. The Aboriginal Protection Board. The Apology. US Civil Rights. US Freedom Riders and their influence. China and the World - 1750 to 1918 Outline. End of the Cold War. ISIS. 1967 Referendum. Extension Resources. Primary Sources
..ATS1259 The 1967 Referendum The 1967 referendum was the repeal of section 127 and section 51 in the Commonwealth Constitution. With the repeal of these two sections the Federal Government were allowed to make laws for Aborigines and Aborigines were now counted in the national census(About the 1967 Referendum).The 1967 referendum can be commonly considered the turning point in. ATS1259 The 1967 Referendum The 1967 referendum was the repeal of section 127 and section 51 in the Commonwealth Constitution. With the repeal of these two sections the Federal Government were allowed to make laws for Aborigines and Aborigines were now counted in the national census(About the 1967 Referendum) unit of analysis in the data file. Vote Yes (For) Vote No (Against) 1967 Referendum Constitutional Amendment General Election, November 7, 1967 Yes = 1,3J.5.,736: No = 908,010 : Annortionment of House and Senate , 4 Vote Yes (For) 5 Vote No (Against A referendum is a form of direct democracy that involves a public vote on a single issue of public policy. It is a way of presenting a debated issue to public decision. The most recent referendum was in the UK; the 2014 Scottish Independence Referendum which asked the question whether Scotland should break away from the UK or not The 1967 referendum was about laying a foundation. It gave the federal parliament the power to correct the injustices of the past that state governments had inflicted on Indigenous people. But it did not compel the parliament to do that. It also provided no institutional voice for Aboriginal people
The 1967 Referendum to include Aboriginals in the census was a failure. The 1967 referendum asked Australians to decide whether Aboriginals should be included in the national census, with over ninety per cent voting yes, many consider the referendum to be a great success 1) This source is a source of a image taken during the 1967 referendum, in which j hassen and his daughter are protesting outside of the parliament house in canberra. 2)The people who are depicted in this source is j hassen and his daughter. 3)The personality and physical traits of the man, are that j hassen is standing up straight. with a well tailored suit and his eyes pointing straight at. 1967 Referendum Source 7 - Say Yes: a story of friendship, fairness and a vote for hope by Jennifer Castles and Paul Seden, Allen and Unwin, Crows Nest, NSW, 2017 Share the picture book in source 7. Students locate a reliable online source that verifies the information about the 1967 referendum provided in source 7 Chelsea Bond writes: On the eve of the 50th anniversary of the 1967 referendum, in a sunset ceremony in central Australia, approximately 300 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander delegates from across Australia delivered the Uluru Statement from the Heart.Convened by the Referendum Council, the statement put forth an Indigenous Australian position on proposed constitutional reform, rejecting. These are the sources and citations used to research An Appeal Analysis References. This bibliography was generated on Cite This For Me on Monday, May 23, The 1967 referendum - Fact sheet 150 - National Archives of Australia, Australian Governmen
IN PARLIAMENT AND REFERENDUM, 1967 NAA: A463, 1965/5445 This file contains draft speeches written for Senator N.H.D Henty for the first and second reading of the two Constitution Alteration Bills. It also includes various transcripts from the Senate readings of th Aunty Oodgeroo and FCAATSI were prominent leaders in favour of the 1967 referendum. In this referendum, Australians voted to change the Constitution to allow Aboriginal people to be included in the census (the national survey about Australia's population) Prior to the historic 1967 federal referendum, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples did not have the same rights as other Australians under the constitution: the federal government could make special laws in relation to any Australians other than Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, who were instead subject to the varying and often highly discriminatory laws of state governments
1967 Referendum. Aboriginal Assimilation Policy. Aboriginal Imprisonment - Community is Everything Campaign SOURCE ANALYSIS. Explain what these sources reveal about the Truman doctrine and the USSR's view of it. SOURCE A. This Russian cartoon (1947) shows the Greek governmen Source: First published in the 1967 Referendum, the differences between the Liberal and Labor Parties, Edmund Barton, the 2008 Apology, the incumbent government's defense of 'hate speech' in 2016, and a few other relevant events. Examples for analysis include anaphora, logos, the use of semi-colons as 'super commas', symbolism.
To interrogate sources in order to extract relevant information in response to historical inquiry since 1924), it was not until the 1967 Referendum that the Commonwealth was able to create laws for Aboriginal Analysis and use of sources 1967 Referendum Essay Essay. Words: 343, Paragraphs: 3, Pages: 2 . Paper type: Essay . For 300 years Scotland stood alongside Wales, Northern Ireland and England to form the United Kingdom, however a recent referendum nearly saw a change to that. Alex Salmond (first minister and head of the Scottish National Party at the time) had decided that. . Since 27 May 1967, laws in some states have been passed in relation to land rights, anti-discrimination and the preservation of cultural heritage. The 1992 Mabo vs Queensland (No. 2) High Court decision is one such case, Civil Rights (Year 10 Level) Consequently, the 1967 Referendum considered a public relations success because of the targeted strategies implemented by Charles Perkins, Faith Bandler and the Federal Council for the Advancement of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders. Ancient Rome (Year 11/12 Level This is the official government argument for a YES vote for the Constitutional Alteration (Aboriginals) Bill 1967. Source: A463, 1965/5445, Constitution alteration bills — procedure in parliament and referendum, 1967, National Archives of Australia, Canberr
Hafez al-Assad took power in a 1970 coup and was elected Syrian president in a referendum a year later; he ruled the country until he died in 2000. Relations with Israel remained hostile - there. 128 1967 Referendum Premium High Res Photos Browse 128 1967 referendum stock photos and images available or start a new search to explore more stock photos and images. Anti-French slogans appeared on the walls of Djibouti in March 1967, nearing the referendum by which the citizens were to decide for or against..
Activity One - Primary Source Analysis, Indigenous rights in the 1950s and 1960s Activity Three - The 1967 Referendum Use pages 1, 2 & 3 of the Document bellow to consider how the Australian Constitution discriminated against Aborigines. Having read the Document answer the following questions The 1967 Referendum question on Aborigines arose in a time of growing awareness for indigenous issues both in Australia and worldwide. Debate in parliament was legalistic under the Menzies Government, whilst pro-Aboriginal pressure groups presented daily petitions to try and influence members of the house that there was a great public outcry for reform On the eve of the 50th anniversary of the 1967 referendum, this report by Oxfam is timely. It provides both a historical and contemporary perspective on the rights of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Importantly, it outlines ten clear steps to move beyond recognition and bring about real and meaningful change
The 1967 referendum and the Constitution of 1973. In 1968, a referendum was organised and four years after, a Constitutional Review Commission (CRC), headed by Vice President Mainza Chona was established in a move that opened the window for the institutionalization of one party rule. by external source. Analysis. The quest for a people. Since the 1967 referendum, Australia has been living a lie. It has patted itself on the back as a fair country, one that treats its citizens equally and, especially, protects the vulnerable • 1967 referendum • This assessment can be used with the QSA Yirrkala Bark Petition • Wave Hill strike • Tent Embassy • Mabo • tabling of the. Analysis and use of sources • Evaluate the reliability and usefulness of primary and secondary sources ACHHS189
Primary documents in Indigenous affairs, history, land and higher education: indigenous Studies in Australia has relied largely on second- and third-hand sources, on hearsay, opinion and oral history rather than on evidence. This site provides a store of primary data - mainly from South Australia but with records from all states going back to the 1830s and up to the 1960s 27 May - 1967 Referendum On 27 May 1967, the Australian Government held a referendum. This was a momentous turning point in Australian history. The 1967 referendum altered the Australian Constitution. More than 90 per cent of Australian voters chose 'Yes' to count Aboriginal and Torres Strai The 1967 Referendum had a significant impact on the lives of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Prior to this event, these people had still not received some basic civil rights. The Referendum proposed to include Aboriginal people in the census and to allow the Commonwealth government to make laws for them Source analysis about the 1967 referendum. Timeline of Aboriginal people's achievement of the right to vote. Homework. Formulate questions and interview a parent or community member about the 1967 referendum. Discovering Democracy Lower Secondary Units, pp 95-8 1. What is this Source? 2. Who is depicted in the source? 3. Describe the physical and personality traits of the man in this portrait. 4. What is the purpose of this source? 5. Why was it published? 6. How useful is this source to an historian studying Australia's response to Communism? 7
Following the 1967 referendum the liberal politics associated with the Federal Council for the Advancement of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders (FCAATSI) was eclipsed by more radical ideas and organisations. These included the founding of the Australian Black Panther Party, the Tent Embassy protest at Canberra for land rights, and a. Source analysis about the 1967 referendum. Timeline of Aboriginal people's achievement of the right to vote. Homework. Formulate questions and interview a parent or community member about the 1967 referendum. 7 Integration. Definition. Analysis of connection between protests and movement to integration. Future problems? - Video: Babakiueri
The 1967 referendum removed a phrase in section 51 of the Constitution which had excluded aboriginal people from protections under federal law and removed section 127, which forbade the counting of aboriginal people in the Australian census. The State of Victoria Library details the changes in an article linked to here By the time Scotland got its say on independence, in the referendum of 2014, the cause had become a rather more male affair. Nicola Sturgeon, whom Mrs Ewing mentored, played second fiddle to Alex. Using historical sources - History F-10. Units of work 1967 Referendum. The '1967 Referendum - Sample History Unit' is based on the 1967 Referendum, which was a significant milestone in the progress towards equal rights for Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The referendum holds great symbolic importance for.
History / Year 7 / Historical Skills / Analysis and use of sources View on Australian Curriculum website. Curriculum content descriptions. Locate, compare, select and use information from a range of sources as evidence Elaborations Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in 1967. In the national referendum of that year, 90 per cent of. . Others argue the referendum did little to bring about the rights and recognition Indigenous activists were seeking, and that its widely understood impacts are in fact 'myths.
The referendum campaign in the early '80s was intense. Premier of Quebec, Rene Levesque, and the PQ desperately wanted the vote to be a resounding oui. The referendum was a critical test for the PQ government. The PQ's (Parti Quebecois) was elected out of the separatist platform An Analysis of the 1898 Referendum BY RUTH DUPRÉ AND DÉSIRÉ VENCATACHELLUM HEC MONTRÉAL - PRELIMINARY DRAFT - 1967 Activities of Canadian Temperance Federation and Ontario Temperance G.E. Foster in the House of Commons, 1884. Source: Royal Commission 1895, minority report p. 690. - 6 The 1967 referendum Voters were asked whether they approved of a change to the Constitution, deleting part of section 51 (xxvi) and repealing section 127. The amendment would
The 1967 referendum (in which 90.77 per cent of people voted 'yes') which gave the Australian Parliament the power to make special laws for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The 1977 referendum which gave the people of the territories the right to vote in referendums, changed the way casual Senate vacancies were filled and forced. For veteran EU watchers, the Brexit trade row looks uncannily like the clash between Athens and Brussels five years ago, which also involved a referendum where EU terms and conditions were rejected
Reps. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez and Nydia Velázquez are pushing ahead with a bill in Congress that would let Puerto Rico decide its future — a proposal threatening Gov. Pedro Pierluisi's determination to pursue statehood for the island.Why it matters: There's an urgency among supporters of statehood to get it done while Democrats control both chambers of Congress, and President Biden has. Vote Yes. 633 likes. 'Vote Yes' is a short film set on May 27, 1967 - The day Australia voted to change the constitution to give Indigenous Australians rights Constitutional recognition would require a strong vote in a national referendum, similar to the historic result in 1967 that allowed government to make laws for Aboriginal people and include them in the census. Indigenous leader Noel Pearson describes constitutional recognition as our 'longest standing and unresolved project for justice' Rachel Perkins was anxious. She had to find a painting. She would conjure one up on a blank canvas if necessary, but she needed an artwork and she needed it quickly. The sun was sinking over Uluru, setting the monolith afire with its nightly red-to-purple transformation, just as it has done for 600 million years, but time at the rock for Perkins was now compressed into a matter of mere hours
1967 Referendum On May 27th 1967, a historical moment in Australia's history occurred. The Referendum of 1967 approved two Australian constitutions concerning about Aboriginals and Torres Straight Islanders Marking the 40th anniversary of the victory of the 1967 referendum Photo from the 1966 May Day march in Queen Street Brisbane The referendum came about as a result of many years of organising by the Federal Council for the Advancement of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders, which was formed on the 13 February 1958 in Adelaide 1967 FCAATSI advertisement. 'Right Wrongs, Write Yes' reflected the aspirations of the 1967 Referendum as more than its legal practicalities. This was a vote to progress equality, and for the federal government to take action about the state of Aboriginal lives in Australia This is a draft of the 1967 referendum ballot paper sent by the Chief Electoral Officer to the Divisional Returning Officers of Western Australia. The DROs were responsible for printing the referendum ballot paper, as per this final version, for the state
Shlomo Gazit, who was head of analysis in military intelligence, told American diplomats that Israel had been taken by surprise by Egypt's belligerency, but it was an elaborate charade, that.. The 1967 referendum on Aborigines worked because the political timing was correct, the proposal was straightforward and the extremes of left and right were relatively silent. Gerard Henderson is. New York June 1, 1967 Referendum North Carolina March 30, 2006 Legislation North Dakota March 25, 2004 Referendum Wisconsin September 18, 1988 Referendum SOURCE: Hansen (2004); North Carolina and Oklahoma information from news reports. using supply and demand analysis. Becker (1983) presents a theor As the Referendum Council reports states, the removal of section 25 would confer no substantive benefit on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Fixing the race power also did not feature prominently. Dialogues were aware that the power was the achievement of 1967 and that mostly beneficial legislation had been empowered by it Scope of the Initiative and Referendum in California, 54 CALn. L. REv. 1717 (1966). 2. In 1777, 1801, 1821, 1846, 1867, 1894, 1915, 1938 and 1967. 3. The Constitutional Commission of 1872 and the Judiciary Commission of 1890. 4. For example, between the Convention of 1938 and the next convention, whic
sources; Note: sources is the most useful term. For example, if you wish to do a search for primary sources on Indigenous Peoples, use: history AND indians of north america AND sources. NOTES: For online searching, capitalizing the search terms (i.e., history) does not make a difference, but capitalizing the search operators (i.e., AND, OR) does Analysis and use of sources . locate relevant information from sources provided (ACHHS068, ACHHS084, ACHHS215, ACHHS216) such as, the Stolen Generation, the 1967 Referendum or the Mabo Decision in the struggle for the rights and freedoms of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Lesson 1 - [title/key inquiry question]. The federal courts also carved out a judicial beachhead for civil rights activists. In Smith v.Allwright, the U.S. Supreme Court, by an 8 to 1 vote, outlawed the white primary, which, by excluding blacks from participating in the Democratic Party primary in southern states, had effectively disenfranchised them since the early 1900s. 80. A decade later, the high court under Chief Justice Earl. The Goa Opinion Poll was a referendum held in the state of Goa, India, on 16 January 1967, to decide the future of the Union Territory of Goa, Daman and Diu within the Union. Although popularly called an opinion poll, it was in fact, a referendum, as the results of the poll were binding on the government of India.The referendum offered the people of Goa a choice between continuing as a union. • analysis, evaluation, research and resource allocation Host a lecture by an invited guest about the 1967 referendum. 8. Inform staff about Mabo Day and celebrate the day. 9. Encourage staff to attend an external community event to recognise and celebrate NRW. Raise interna
He was also involved in the 1967 Referendum campaign to have Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples included in the census and to allow the national Australian Government, rather than the state and territory governments, to make laws that affect Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. His village Las would always remain his home The referendum revealed deep popular disaffection with the European Union, in particular on the part of working-class communities that felt that they had been left behind. Some of the roots of this disaffection may lie elsewhere: in national government austerity policies or in the effects of globalization more generally Unit 2: 1967 Referendum Unit 3: The Great Depression in the USA IOP CAM Source Analysis and Evaluation Skills Source Evaluation Skills Source Analysis Template << Previous: Unit 1: Weapons and Warfare (IA3) Next: Unit 3: Fifth Century Athens >> Last. 1967 July: Race riots in Detroit last for five days, leaving 43 people dead, 1189 injured, over 7000 people arrested, and damage estimates of $22 million. Also during the summer of 1967, a riot in Newark left 23 dead and $10 million in damage. 1967 November referendum in 198813, and (arguably) the Republic referendum in 1999, are notable examples of failures in which a single question incorporated multiple, but severable, proposals. Of the successes, the national percentage in favour ranged between 54.39% (1946) and 90.77% (1967).14 However, only two successful referendums (191
Task 10: Source analysis 15 Influence of the movement beyond the United States Australia and Aboriginal Rights in the 1960s, including: • NSW freedom ride 1965 • the 1967 referendum on Aborigines • equal wage ruling 1968 Task 11: Explanation - Short answer test 16 Task 12: Semester 2 examinatio The 1967 devaluation of the pound. View full image. When Labour, led by Harold Wilson, took office in October 1964, it was immediately faced with a deficit of £800 million, which contributed to a series of sterling crises. A possible solution was to devalue the pound against other currencies to make imports more expensive (which meant more.
Analysis of Eades' case and the topic of Aboriginal people in national service contributes to the body of scholarly work about ongoing government discrimination against Aboriginal people and the problems of concurrent federal and state powers over Aboriginal affairs during the period between the 1967 Referendum and the 197 In this study, economic structure was found to be more important than producer characteristics in explaining voter behavior in a Georgia Vidalia onions marketing order referendum A critical analysis of the visual politics used in the debate for reproductive rights in Ireland in the current referendum to repeal the 8th Amendment. Tanya Keane Student Number: 509741 OCA Photography Level 3 Contextual Studies Full List of Figures Figure 1: Cheers: Repeal the Eight campaigners celebrate the return of a Yes vot
This article examines the role of television in Australia's 1967 referendum, which is widely believed to have given rights to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. It presents an analysis of archival television footage to identify five stories that moved the nation: Australia's shame, civil rights and global connections, admirable. The Nathu La clashes started on 11 September 1967, when China's People's Liberation Army (PLA) launched an attack on Indian posts at Nathu La, and lasted till 15 September 1967.In October 1967, another military duel took place at Cho La and ended on the same day.. According to independent sources, India achieved decisive tactical advantage and managed to hold its own against Chinese forces of the referendum within South Vietnam and reveals the overwhelming reliance on English-language sources that marks the existing scholarly literature on America's involvement in Vietnam.11 7. Ibid., 152. 8. David L. Anderson, Trapped by Success: The Eisenhower Administration and Vietnam, 1953- 1961 (New York, 1991), 127. 9. Ibid., 128. 10 Open Source Library for working with colors in visualizations. Stuttgart 21 Referendum. Exploring correlation between political preferences and referendum votes. German Energy Landscape. A series of streamgraph visualizations around German energy data. Mapping the Digital Divide. Showing the digital divide by mapping internet usage and populatio
The Constitution of Australia (or Australian Constitution) is a written constitution that is the supreme law of Australia.It establishes Australia as a federation under a constitutional monarchy and outlines the structure and powers of the federal executive government, legislature and judiciary analysis of the 1920 figures has not been possible, but the success of the R.GA 72 AN ANALYSIS OF THE RHODESIAN REFERENDUM, 1922 3 F. M. G. Wilson (ed.), Source Book of Parliamentary Elections and Referenda i Southern Rhodesia 1898-1962 (Salisbury, Univ. Coll, of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, 1963
The referendum was on the amendment to Article VI, Section 5 and 16 of the 1935 Constitution. The proposed plebiscite was apparently challenged in the Supreme Court; it declined to intervene. The plebiscite is under-reported but was a highly significant one, in that it was the first and only time, plebiscite questions resulted in a rejection by. Analysis of results. The turnout of voters, at 2,159,655, was the highest thus far in any Irish constitutional referendum. This beat the previous record, which had been held by the 2015 marriage equality referendum, by 209,930 votes. Results by Region. All four regions voted Yes, ranging from 57.5% Yes for Connacht-Ulster to 75.5% for Dublin Senate Bill 33 nassed by the 1967 Legislature was Vote Yes (For) (see next page) Vote No (Against) 1968 Referendum Referred Law General Election. November 5, 1968 Yes = 120.336: No = 118,631 6 7 Referred Law No. 2. An Act Entitled. An Act to amend Supplement to the South Dakota Code of 1939. a source of law in the country. The 1967 referendum. Islanders and the broader community towards a successful referendum. Drawing on the analysis of past referendums that I outline earlier in this Chapter, I offer the following observations about issues that could b Abbas vowed to go ahead with his referendum on a peace plan crafted by jailed Palestinian leaders-one that would recognize Israel if it withdrew to the 1967 borders. (Kevin Peraino, June 19, 2006, Newsweek International Edition, emphasis added throughout
The Aboriginal History Research Unit at the Department of Aboriginal Affairs (DAA) has undertaken a state-wide collaboration with the WA Museum (WAM), State Library of WA (SLWA), ABC and National Archives of Australia to commemorate the 50th Anniversary of the 1967 Referendum, the 25th Anniversary of the 1992 Mabo Decision, and the 20 th Anniversary of the Bringing Them Home Report Aunty Oodgeroo and FCAATSI were prominent leaders in favour of the 1967 referendum. In this referendum, Australians voted to change the Constitution to allow Aboriginal people to be included in the census (the national survey about Australia's population). Sources/Further Reading. Sue Abbey, 'Noonuccal, Oodgeroo (1920-1993)', Australian. experimenter's primary concern is the attributor's rules for data analysis The authors wish to acknowledge the contributions of Michael Fleming who helped to design and execute Study 3 and Study 4 and of Michael Hubbard who assisted in the analysis and interpretation of data from all four studies In 1967, another referendum was due, and they did the same thing again and just to piss off the losers they renamed the colony French Territory of the Afars and the Issas (a Take That! against the Somalis, because the Issas were just a sub-clan of them) Communities in 1963 and 1967 - due to vetos by France's then-President, Charles de Gaulle - the UK finally entered the EC in 1973. The aspiration of UK governments to secure special arrangements for their country within the Communities dates back to shortly after that accession.1 2.1.1 The first renegotiation and referendum of 197 Teaching and Learning Program. Title/Type of Unit: Rights and Freedoms Program Risk Level: Low to Medium. Duration: 11 Weeks By . Syllabus Outcomes. Stage . 5 History. A student: The origins and significance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, including Australia's involvement in the development of the declaratio