Cat broken leg cost UK 2021

CAT Products At Screwfix - Here When You Need U

  1. Craft Beer Tasting with Snacks. Get Exclusive Deals With GROUPON®. Limited Time Offer
  2. We explain the types of pet insurance and the benefits and pitfalls. Davina West's policy had lapsed two days before her cat broke a leg and the bill came to £1,200
  3. Starter Pack for Puppies and Kittens - £70. Our starter packs give your puppy or kitten the best start in life. Our pack will ensure that your pet is vaccinated against common and serious infectious diseases, provided with preventative treatments for parasites and will be microchipped and registered with your details, in case they ever go missing
  4. We have included both the average treatment costs and the 10% most expensive costs for each condition to help show how vet bills can vary. To make this information more specific to your pet we have grouped the dogs in sizes showing approximate weight and have separate costs for cats
  5. Indeed, from what i've seen at my Vet Practice broken legs can escalate way above £6000, if you have to be referred which would likely be the case. £200 for a Vac is expensive yeh, would normally cost around £20-30
  6. The average cost of treating a cat suffering from some form or respiratory disorder could be as much as £480; Removing cysts and warts is always a worry because you never know if a lump is benign or malignant. Again, the sooner a biopsy is carried out and the offending lump or wart removed, the better and the cost of having this done could set.

We had another cat McGuyver had a broken leg that needed a specialist to treat with rods and pins and screws several years ago which cost us about $4000.00,which we were glad to pay. McGuyver did. Front Leg Injury Average Cost. From 327 quotes ranging from $200 - $1,80 The signs that your cat has broken its leg or has a major injury in the leg are: Limp or difficulty walking. Very sharp and frequent meowing. Swelling in the affected leg. Apathy and lack of appetite. It is possible that the animal hides for fear of being examined. If the broken bone punctures the skin you will be able to see a pretty obvious. We took the cat to our vet who told us that the break was below the joint and both bones were broken completely. Xrays done by the vet showed no signs of splinters or crushing of any kind. We were told that the cat would require surgery and pins to fix the leg. I am looking for some advise that may save us from spending $1200 to fix the cat's leg

A broken bone might not be visible if the fracture is closed, but there might be a lump or asymmetry in the limb. Again, try to examine the area if possible and find the cause. In case the bone is visibly poking through or just under the skin, you'll need to react quickly. An open fracture is an obvious sign of a broken leg A dog's broken leg can cost £1,000 to mend; a cat's up to £300. A pet's pacemaker might set an owner back £2,500, removing a cat's cataracts costs about £500 and treating a dog's knee. Hi guys, i know this is the wrong place to ask but it's the most popular board so thought i'd put it here. Basically my mothers cats been missing for the last week and i've just found him but it looks like his leg is broken, nearest 24hr vet is an hour drive and i can't get him in the box to.. *Data accurate as of September 2020. How much do vet appointments cost? Vet fees are unregulated, meaning vet costs vary depending on things like location, pet and practice. It's no secret that vet bills can be costly but because the fees are unregulated, you can shop around to find the best value The cost of the cat's broken leg surgical treatment itself varies widely based on the specifics of the situation but can be between $1,500 and $4,000. The cat should still be restricted in activity or even better cage rests when allowed home and will also need to be seen after around 2 weeks so that the doctor can take the sutures out

Foodies Experiences · Concerts & Festivals · GROUPON®: Up to 70% Of

Founded in 1917 by animal welfare pioneer, Maria Dickin CBE, PDSA is the UK's leading veterinary charity. Operating through a UK-wide network of 48 Pet Hospitals, PDSA provides low cost and free veterinary care to the sick and injured pets of people in need and promotes responsible pet ownershi A broken or fractured bone can be very painful. Cats are often stoic animals but it's important to have your vet diagnose the problem and provide your cat with medication to help alleviate pain. What To Do if You Think Your Cat Has a Broken Leg. If you think that your cat may have a broken leg, it's time to take action

I have a 14 year-old cat that has a broken leg (broken in several places and splintered). I live in the Washington D.C. area where costs are high. Should i get this fixed or have him put to sleep. Ver read mor The expense of the cat's broken leg surgery itself differs widely based upon the specifics of the circumstance, however, it can be somewhere between $1,500 and $4,000 The cost of treating a cat's broken leg depends on the severity of the fracture and the vet you go to. A surgical procedure, if necessary can range anywhere from as little as $500 to as much as $3,100 for the surgery by the time you add in the office visit, radiographs/x-rays and the surgery My cat was attacked by a dog and that's how he got a broken leg, at the time we were waiting to hear back if his leg could be saved, this whole thing is very stressful! We are just hoping he will make a good recovery and not have even as much as limp after all of this is over! Another 6 weeks to go still! Thank you for replie Radiographs to assess the fracture would be around $140 upwards, with the actual fracture repair being anywhere from $850 upwards. For a basic fracture repair an average total bill is around the $1,500 mark, but for more complex surgery $4,000 plus is not unusual. Cat Surgical Fracture Repair Consideration

Have you asked them to pay for the treatment the cat needs for the broken leg? If you have, are they not willing to spend money on just a cat? Ask relatives, neighbors, even teachers at school for help or ideas on how to quickly raise the money needed to at least pay for an initial vet exam and x rays. Look for a low cost vet clinic in your area Average cost of buying a cat If you're getting a standard domestic cat from a reputable breeder or rescue home, you're not going to be breaking the kitty, with an average price of £50 to £150. However, you can spend a lot more, with the price of some cats really making your fur stand on end

Cat Uk Deals - Deals on Nightlif

Typical costs: Without health insurance, non-surgical treatment for a broken leg typically costs up to $2,500 or more for a fracture that requires a cast.A leg X-ray costs an average of $210, according to NewChoiceHealth.com [], but can cost as much as $1,000 or more at some radiology centers. And application of a short or long leg cast costs about $221 to $238, not including the doctor fee. The Cat I'th Well, Halifax, West Yorkshire. 1,184 likes · 8 talking about this. Country Free House serving traditional cask ales and homecooked food Check Out our Selection & Order Now. Free UK Delivery on Eligible Orders Cat had abcess on his side from another cat bite, 3 vet vists, 2 injections, cream to put on wound, after third visit on a tetime vet said need to cut away dying tissue and stitch up. stayed in over night and collected the following afternoon. then another trip to take sticthes out. I was expecting double the surgery its self cost £81.50

Price/Cost Units Location Last Updated; Broken jaw that was wired, two xrays, emergancy call-out fee, two night stay, anti-biotics and pain killers. £1,099: item/job: Fife, Scotland: 2015-02-11: Cat hit by cat, hind leg amputation, X-ray, meds, overnight stay. This was an emergency vets as late at night. £120 just to look at my cat. £1,000. Broken leg healing time depends on the injury, the age and general health of the cat and the way the injury had to be treated.. Healing Cat: Broken Leg Recovery. According to a UK survey, 96.7% of cats with a broken bone which were treated experienced a satisfactory outcome.. If the injury occurred around a joint, there might be some lasting effects in the form of stiffness and a decreased. The aftercare for a pet with a broken bone is very variable and depends on the type of fracture, the type of operation that has been performed and the nature of the patient. Most pets can be allowed to exercise almost immediately following surgery, although it is important that unrestricted activity such as running or jumping is avoided No, instead, its leg was going to be amputated and then a course of chemotherapy would be tried to ensure that 'all was done to save the dog's life' - at a cost of £1,000 to £2,000, or even more Most broken bones which affect cats are due to trauma, such as being hit by a car or a fall from a height. Other causes of broken bones in the leg include bone infection, cancer and hormonal imbalances which weaken the bone. The most common bone breakages seen in cats is a broken pelvis, broken legs, and broken tail

Broken bones are painful so a kitten with a broken leg is likely to limp or not use the limb. If the leg has an odd angle in it, this is a clue, but not all fractures are this obvious. A limping cat is in pain so the only option is to have them assessed by a vet to identify the cause—be it a sprain, bite, or fracture Hereditary and congenital conditions are health issues present in your dog or cat at birth. Below are some examples of pet insurance claims and their treatment costs. Learn more about these pet health conditions in our veterinary terms dictionary. Condition Treatment Cost; Patellar luxation: Required surgery and pain medications: $4,01 If you know the cat is in pain and there's no way her leg can be fixed, under the circumstances, I guess you'll have to make the decision to have her put down. It's very sad, but as you said, if she's elderly and thin, she's not a good candidate for surgery, so, I'm afraid the choice is already made, unfortunately My cat was limping and sometimes his leg seemed better than others. It turned out he had puncture wounds (probably from his brother!) on his leg which we hadn't noticed and he had got an infection in his joint. Took a long time to clear up and cost us a lot of money (luckily he was insured). I think you are right to take him to the vet To splint a cat's broken leg, put the cat on a table and have someone else hold it firmly by the scruff. Next, put cotton wool sausages in between its toes. Then, starting at the top of the toes and working up towards the body, create the first layer of bandage

An urgent appeal has been launched to help save an adorable cat who was going to be put down. The injured feline, nicknamed Broken Bean, was taken to the vets with a badly broken leg, but was. Recognize the signs of a broken leg. You should check for the signs of a broken leg before administering any first aid. This can help you figure if your cat needs to see your vet or if there may be another issue. Signs your kitten may have a broken leg include: Reluctance to put weight on the leg; Limping; Swelling; Pain or tendernes Chubbs is brought into the surgery with a nasty swollen face and a broken jaw. Dr. Jeff needs to assess the damage, and then perform some tricky surgery to w..

Daulat Farms | Daulat Farms Group of Companies | Daulat

Average Cost of an MRI Scan for a Dog or Cat in the UK The average starting cost for a dog or cat MRI is around £1,860, but costs can vary widely depending on many factors like if the scan is an out-of-hours emergency, whether the scan is performed at a for-profit or not-for-profit, the weight of your pet, the number of body parts being. Meet Meeka and Chinook! Shortly after arriving at Vet Ranch, Chinook came down with parvo virus and sadly did not make it. Thankfully, Meeka escaped the de.. Broken bones can also prove to be rather costly at £500 for a broken arm and £1,100 for a broken leg. However, these costs are relatively minor compared to knee and hip replacement surgeries How Can You Tell If a Cat's Leg Is Sprained or Broken? By Staff Writer Last Updated Mar 25, 2020 12:22:10 PM ET A cat with a broken leg or paw bone holds its leg completely off the ground and typically walks with a limp or places just a small amount of weight on a sprained or injured paw or leg, according to Doctors Foster and Smith The skin is abraded where it rubs the ground and it cleary can't go on like this. It would break MIL's heart to have the cat pts but she can't afford a huge vet bill for amputation. The vet won't tell me a ballpark cost because it's not my cat

i thought my cat broke his leg once but when i brought him to the vet, the vet xray-ed him and it was just a dislocated bone, and the doc gave him some antibiotic, pain killer, and some fluid. it costs me about 140 malaysian ringgit, ( thats about 35 USD ) and about three days later he got better, started limping to walk and a couple of months later, he walks normal — SimpleNews.co.uk (@Simplenewsuk) March 6, 2020 Baldwin shared a photo on Instagram Story that showed her or someone else holding the cat in what appears to be a vet's office

74 reviews of Animal Surgical & Orthopedic Center I agree with Mary T. This is the place to go if your animal ever needs surgery. This past spring, the 'skin tag' on my pup's ear grew exponentially, it turned out to be a cancerous Mass Cell Tumor. Every animal medical professional I saw suggested that I have a full pinnectomy done (removal of the entire ear)... and I couldn't do it The front legs carry more weight than the back legs - it is generally believed that amputation of a back leg will be more successful, so amputation of a front leg may not be offered so frequently Cats that have damage to the front leg are more likely to also have damage to the chest, and this may reduce their chances of surviva Picture this: Your cat is sick or injured and the cost of treating her is more than you can afford. Try these suggestions if you need help with vet bills. Kellie B. Gormly | Feb 19th 201

Fixing a broken leg can cost up to $7,500. The average cost of a 3-day hospital stay is around $30,000. Comprehensive cancer care can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Having health coverage can help protect you from high, unexpected costs like these Generally, the cost of a dog's broken bone runs from $200 to $1,000 and up. Some minor fractures don't require any treatment besides rest; others, like compound fractures, may involve surgery and steel plates inserted into the animal's limb Euthanasia is usually carried out by injecting an overdose of anaesthetic into the vein of the front leg, although the injection can be given to other areas of the body as well. Your cat is held by a nurse and a small patch of fur is shaved off. All your cat feels is a tiny prick of the needle - then the injection is painless Runner - Thigh pain - Nerve involvement: 8 weeks off unable to run at all : 4 sessions ( Cost £165). Increased running speed from before injury as by product of our treatment. Runner: Calf Pain - Myofascial pain -1 year history of calf pain restricted ability to run long distance or without distraction. ( Cost £85)

The average cost of cat insurance turned out to be about $25/month. Next, we pulled quotes for a 2-year-old Labrador, also from Brooklyn, New York. We got the cost of a monthly premium for pet health insurance from the same six companies with no add-ons or discounts, and the average price of dog insurance came to around $66/month News Crime Mansfield cat shooting epidemic: £1,000 reward for information after kitten's leg is shot off A vet who was forced to amputate a Mansfield kitten's leg after it was shot with a pellet gun is offering a £1,000 reward in an effort to 'put a stop to the huge problem' of cat shootings in the area Saturday November 07 2020, 12.01am, The Times N oel Fitzpatrick comes hotfoot from the operating theatre where he has treated a dog with a broken leg. After inserting a metal plate, it should be fine Gilbert, a gorgeous cat from Seattle, Washington knows all too well that if it could potentially happen, it probably will unfortunately. Gilbert's owner Patti shares her story: At 2am, I woke to my cat, Gilbert, screaming from the kitchen

'We had to pay £1,200 when our cat broke a leg': How to

On November 9th 2020 a tiny kitten, about 2 weeks old, came into our care to be handreared. She had sustained a fractured pelvis and broken leg at some point, but there had been no medical help and her broken leg had eventually mended by itself, leaving that leg shorter than the other. Cat Chat (Reg. Charity No. 1100649) provides these. She also warns that if the emergency requires anesthesia and surgery, the cost could easily exceed $3,000 to $4,000 for things like bloat or a C-section. Image: Giphy How to afford an emergenc February 2020/Neenah, Wisconsin: NBC26.com reported that an apparently homeless cat had been found next to a garbage can with two broken legs. She was taken to an animal adoption group, which transferred her to a veterinary hospital, where it was determined that she'd likely been struck by a car because both left legs were severely injured NEUTER - CAT (in addition to other procedure) - $35. NEUTER - CAT - $85. NEUTER - DOG (in addition to other procedure) - $55. NEUTER - DOG - $175. NEUTER - CRYPTORCHID - $275. Neuter is the term used for removing the testicles in a male pet. The scrotum is retained and will usually shrink on its own over time View animals fundraisers on GoFundMe, the world's #1 free and most trusted fundraising platform

Vet Treatment Prices & Offers Animal Trust Not for

Typical Treatment Costs For Pets - Vet Fees - Tesco Ban

WebMD - Better information. Better health BOSTON, June 8, 2020 - An adorable one-year-old cat named Foxy Cleocatra may have used several of her nine lives when she was struck by a car in Waltham, Mass. on May 3, suffering a broken leg that required emergency intervention at the nearby MSPCA-Angell West 2 reviews of West Side Cats Put the FUCKING cat in a different carrier and put it somewhere. I'm busy. - West Side Cats staff member I would give ZERO stars if I could. I brought in an injured stray cat with a broken leg and bite wound on her face. NONE of the employees were wearing masks during the middle of a global pandemic. They were extremely nasty and rude to me when I could not offer. Low Prices on Cats Pet Petplan is a trading name of Pet Plan Limited (Registered in England No. 1282939) and Allianz Insurance plc (Registered in England No. 84638), Registered office: 57 Ladymead, Guildford, Surrey GU1 1DB

Alternatives to declawing usually cost under $60 and may even be free. These can certainly be a cost-effective method of preventing scratching. Altogether, the cost to declaw a cat is $200 to $800. This cost includes any take-home medications and pre-anesthetic health checks First off, good on you for trying to cat and help this poor animal. A broken leg would be very painful, and definitely needs treatment. While broken legs can heal on their own, they won't heal correctly, and the cat may not be able to use the leg properly

My cat has broke her leg!!!! Cost to fix!!! - The Student Roo

The world's most expensive medical care league: How breaking a bone in the US could cost you almost a year's wages. By Lee Boyce. Published: 13:17 EDT, 12 September 2013 | Updated: 13:17 EDT, 12. Case #4--A five month old labrador puppy comes in with a broken front leg. The owners are young and cannot afford the needed surgery. Simply splinting or casting the leg would be questionable. This is a tougher case, as the dog's life will be significantly impacted, even if the injury isn't life-threatening She also cites a hind-leg ligament rupture than required a R10 000 operation, and costs of R330 per dog every three months (that's R1 650) for flea and tick treatment, dog food at R800 a month.

The Real Cost of Vet Care for Dogs and Cats Pets4Home

All About Animals Rescue is a 501(c)(3) dedicated to No More Homeless Pets in Auburn Hills and Warren Michigan providing high-quality, high volume, low-cost spay/neuter services, pet adoption, pet support line, feral and stray cat assistance, and rescue resource Generally it is easier for a cat to adapt to a hindleg amputation than a forelimb amputation, because cats bear more weight on their front legs than their rear legs. Make sure that your cat remains indoors until the surgical site has healed and the stitches have been removed. Check the surgical incision daily for swelling, redness or discharge We have only talked about pets who require a single leg amputated. Yet some pets have had 2 legs amputated — and amazingly, they can walk as well. Post-Amputation Care for Your Dog or Cat. The vet should give you clear instructions about what to expect after surgery. Expect your pet to be sleepy and quiet for the first day or so — but if.

The Real Costs of Treating Cat Injuries and Diseases - Catste

You have given me some great ideas! my fur baby Gizmo goes in for his front leg leg amputation Wednesday(03/18/2015). He was a stray we found in a abandoned houses yard. He was only 8 weeks old (that was in august 2014) after I took him to the vet I didn't have the heart to turn him in to the shelter cause I knew adoption would probably be hard. A computed tomography (CT or CAT) scan allows doctors to see inside your body. It uses a combination of X-rays and a computer to create pictures of your organs, bones, and other tissues

Front Leg Injury in Cats - Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis

Hi everyone, so we're trying to raise funds for the costs of Diego's xray, medicines/antibiotics and vet costs. Please read his story Our 7 month old cat Diego. He was a stray kitten when we first found him hanging around at our backyard. We didn't chose him but he chose us. So we took him in that day and have love him even more since The Supervet: Noel Fitzpatrick is a Channel 4 television series following the work of vet Noel Fitzpatrick and his team at Fitzpatrick Referrals in Eashing, Surrey.The series shows the work on some of the hardest-to-cure pets from across the country as they receive cutting-edge treatments and surgery from Fitzpatrick and his team, who attempt to cure pets that might otherwise be beyond saving Costs of Surgery or Unexpected Diagnosis. While on average, routine annual veterinary care might cost between $200 to $400 for dogs and $90 to $200 for cats, unplanned events such as accidents, injuries, or unanticipated ailments can cost a variable amount more Hi my 3 month old cat fell from the balcony on the second floor and broke one of her hind legs and had a surgery with a rod inserted, she's been living in her carrier ever since (only allowed out to play a bit and take her calcium/vitD supplement) but she still cannot bear any weight on her injured leg, should I be worried or is it likely to get better with time (vet says to give more time.

How To Care For A Cat With A Broken Leg - 5 step

Reduce Surgery Costs . Before you try to figure out how to pay without insurance, try to determine how you can best decrease the cost of your surgery before you even have the procedure. First, find out where the procedure will costs you the least amount of money KITTENS NEED HOMES! PLEASE ADOPT! Each year, thousands of mums & kittens come into shelters across the UK & Ireland. If you could offer a kitten or two a home, please adopt from a shelter, rather than buying from a pet shop or breeder $2,500 does sound like a lot of money. Perhaps a better option would be to amputate the leg? Cats can get along fine on three legs. And perhaps you should have thought about this before you let your cat free roam. Cats that are kept safely indoors don't end up with broken legs. Your cat broke its leg? That's a bit odd

We have a cat that somehow broke a front leg

Listed here is a collection of the source information for illness and injury costs. Costs will vary based on your individual circumstances and treatment If your cat has broken her leg, they will likely put her leg in a cast or bandage until it heals. If it is not treated, the bone may mend itself but become warped and painful; it may never mend itself; or it may cause the leg to lose blood supply leading to the amputation of the leg and a great deal of pain to your cat She lives in Virginia and is looking for a place that will perform low-cost surgery on her cat. Her cat was missing for 3 days and showed up last night battered and bruised. She took her to the vet in Richmond today and she has 2-3 fractures in her pelvis

How to Tell If a Cat Has a Broken Leg: Step-by-Step

Healthy Paws Pet Insurance for dogs & cats covers new accidents, illnesses, emergency care, and more with up to 90% back on vet bills. Get a free quote today The nice hospitals are the private ones for rich folks, that have a pool and a golf course attached. When I got to the ER I sat down next to a young guy who had a badly broken leg; his foot was twisted around so it was facing backward, and he was writhing and moaning and semi-coherent Risks Radiation exposure. During a CT scan, you're briefly exposed to ionizing radiation. The amount of radiation is greater than you would get during a plain X-ray because the CT scan gathers more-detailed information. The low doses of radiation used in CT scans have not been shown to cause long-term harm, although at much higher doses, there may be a small increase in your potential risk of. Everyone does it from time to time; Sprained ankles, broken legs, swollen knee joints, and bruised shins are among the dozens of nasty ways a person can damage themselves. The Milliard Foam Leg Cushion gently elevates your leg and supports your knee in a bent 45° angle for proper positioning to heal correctly However, a broken leg, hip problems, ear infections, swallowing foreign objects, diabetes, or urinary tract infections can cost you thousands of dollars without pet insurance. All it takes is one accident or illness to justify the cost of a policy. The OVMA study estimated pet insurance to cost $933 per year for a puppy, and $444 for a kitten

So much of our lives will change post-corona

Improve your health, lifestyle, diet & nutrition with health news, facts, tips, & other information. Educate yourself about health & help yourself and others live a more healthly l.. Saturday 31 October 2020 05:13, UK. COVID-19; A woman whose cat died after being scared by fireworks has warned this year's coronavirus restrictions could make Bonfire Night even deadlier for. The total expense is basically a mix of the costs of each specific element. This includes sprinkler heads that cost somewhere between $1 and $33 per piece, valves, and gauges that vary from $9 to $55 each, in addition to pumps and switches that have a price of about $15 to $60 per piece Other costs to consider are pet insurance, pet savings fund, travel costs, boarding/pet sitting, and money for emergencies. Understanding the true costs of owning a pet and veterinary care will hopefully give you a better understanding of what responsibilities you are about to take on A lot of people don't realize that the most adopted cat in a shelter is an 8 week old kitten, but the most vulnerable cat in a shelter is a kitten under 8 weeks old. 2020 at 3:18pm PST. A cat abscess is an infection that festers under the skin and ultimately breaks open. When your cat suffers a deep puncture, the skin is broken and bacteria are basically injected into the area. The bacteria cause infection and inflammation and usually cause a swelling at the area of the wound

  • Free online summer courses for high school credit.
  • U.S. Cellular unlimited data plan.
  • How to replace overload relay on refrigerator.
  • Sunset in which direction in India.
  • Crudite platter images.
  • Property development finance for new developers.
  • Magic Jack renewal card.
  • Hotel suite met jacuzzi.
  • Difference between podiatrist and chiropodist in Australia.
  • Are there blood vessels in the dermis.
  • Go to Recycle bin.
  • How to avoid weight gain after gallbladder removal.
  • Fleet Farm locations.
  • New homes Near me.
  • Yb16cl b jet ski battery near me.
  • Large clear Display Box.
  • How to pronounce deceased.
  • Pontiac GTO under $10k.
  • Deafness and language development.
  • Buying my council house.
  • How long does it take to get a smear test results back?.
  • Synergy configuration Guide.
  • Estradot Reviews UK.
  • How to identify cobalt blue glass.
  • DKNY shoes australia.
  • Bohemian decor bedroom.
  • Change password Oracle SQL.
  • 6 oz of Chicken calories.
  • Tax implications of working from home abroad UK.
  • Boulevard abbreviation in French.
  • Ww II ration books.
  • London to Coventry University.
  • Clindamycin benzoyl peroxide gel Reddit.
  • Yeast infection cream leaking out Reddit.
  • Distal subungual onychomycosis home treatment.
  • Topographic map Melbourne.
  • How much does a yard of dirt cost.
  • Hydrophone hire.
  • Hyperthyroidism treatment guidelines 2019.
  • Romantic hero Frankenstein.
  • Passion fruit Limber Recipe.